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dc.contributor.authorCzajkowski, M
dc.contributor.authorAndersen, HE
dc.contributor.authorBlicher-Mathiesen, G
dc.contributor.authorBudziński, W
dc.contributor.authorElofsson, K
dc.contributor.authorHagemejer, J
dc.contributor.authorHasler, B
dc.contributor.authorHumborg, C
dc.contributor.authorSmart, JCR
dc.contributor.authorSmedberg, E
dc.contributor.authorThodsen, H
dc.contributor.authorWąs, A
dc.contributor.authorWilamowski, M
dc.contributor.authorŻylicz, T
dc.contributor.authorHanley, N
dc.date.accessioned2021-07-05T06:21:20Z
dc.date.available2021-07-05T06:21:20Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.issn0048-9697en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147824en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/405681
dc.description.abstractIn this paper, we investigate the potential gains in cost-effectiveness from changing the spatial scale at which nutrient reduction targets are set for the Baltic Sea, with particular focus on nutrient loadings from agriculture. The costs of achieving loading reductions are compared across five levels of spatial scale, namely the entire Baltic Sea; the marine basin level; the country level; the watershed level; and the grid square level. A novel highly-disaggregated model, which represents decreases in agricultural profits, changes in root zone N concentrations and transport to the Baltic Sea is used. The model includes 14 Baltic Sea marine basins, 14 countries, 117 watersheds and 19,023 10-by-10 km grid squares. The main result which emerges is that there is a large variation in the total cost of the program depending on the spatial scale of targeting: for example, for a 40% reduction in loads, the costs of a Baltic Sea-wide target is nearly three times lower than targets set at the smallest level of spatial scale (grid square). These results have important implications for both domestic and international policy design for achieving water quality improvements where non-point pollution is a key stressor of water quality.en_US
dc.description.peerreviewedYesen_US
dc.languageenen_US
dc.publisherElsevier BVen_US
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom147824en_US
dc.relation.ispartofjournalScience of the Total Environmenten_US
dc.relation.ispartofvolume790en_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEcologyen_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode0602en_US
dc.titleIncreasing the cost-effectiveness of nutrient reduction targets using different spatial scalesen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articlesen_US
dcterms.bibliographicCitationCzajkowski, M; Andersen, HE; Blicher-Mathiesen, G; Budziński, W; Elofsson, K; Hagemejer, J; Hasler, B; Humborg, C; Smart, JCR; Smedberg, E; Thodsen, H; Wąs, A; Wilamowski, M; Żylicz, T; Hanley, N, Increasing the cost-effectiveness of nutrient reduction targets using different spatial scales, Science of the Total Environment, 2021, 790, pp. 147824en_US
dcterms.licensehttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
dc.date.updated2021-07-04T23:45:28Z
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)en_US
gro.rights.copyright© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en_US
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorSmart, Jim C.


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