Cardiac and respiratory activity and golf putting performance under attentional focus instructions
MetadataShow full item record
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine measures of cardiac and respiratory activity when participants at different levels of skill development performed a golf putting task under different attentional focus instructions. Putting performance and self-reports of attentional focus were also examined. Methods: Novice (n = 18), experienced (n = 16), and elite golfers (n = 16) attempted 2.4 m straight putts under a baseline (no instruction) condition and when instructed to focus attention on a process goal, a performance goal, an outcome goal, or to trust the body to perform the skill. Results: Compared to novice golfers, the experienced and elite golfers showed better performance and reduced heart rate (HR), greater heart rate variability (HRV), pronounced HR deceleration prior to the putt, and a greater tendency to exhale prior to the putt. The attentional focus instructions also influenced HR and putting performance. Conclusions: The results show that athletes at different skill levels differ in their performance and focus of attention while performing a motor task.
Psychology of Sport and Exercise
© 2011 Elsevier. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.
Sport and Exercise Psychology