Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorShirkey, Gabriela
dc.contributor.authorBelongeay, Megan
dc.contributor.authorWu, Susie
dc.contributor.authorMa, Xiaoguang
dc.contributor.authorTavakol, Hassan
dc.contributor.authorAnctil, Annick
dc.contributor.authorMarquette-Pyatt, Sandra
dc.contributor.authorStewart, Rodney A
dc.contributor.authorSinha, Parikith
dc.contributor.authorCorkish, Richard
dc.contributor.authorChen, Jiquan
dc.contributor.authorCelik, Ilke
dc.date.accessioned2021-07-22T05:02:26Z
dc.date.available2021-07-22T05:02:26Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.issn1996-1073
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/en14092633
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/406222
dc.description.abstractTo meet rising energy demands, power plant operations will expand, influencing the interactions between the water–energy nexus and society. However, a major challenge is integration of social dimensions within electricity generation. To address this, we generate a baseline dataset using US public data (2014–2019) from the Energy Information Administration and US Bureau of Labor Statistics. We identify the rate of energy consumed, CO2, SO2 and NOx emissions generated, and water used per MWh net electricity as well as employee wellbeing per unit MW capacity during electricity generation. Rates of energy consumption (MMBtu/MWh) decreased 4.9%, but water consumption and withdrawal (m3/MWh) both increased 0.93% and 0.31%, respectively. Emissions of CO2, SO2 and NOx decreased 22.64%, 75% and 25% MT/MWh, respectively. Thermoelectric cooling withdrawal and consumption is led by natural gas (50.07%, 38.31%), coal (29.61%, 25.07%), and nuclear energies (13.55%, 18.99%). Electric power generation contributes 0.06 injuries–illnesses/TWh and 0.001 fatalities/TWh, of which fossil fuels contributed 70% and 15%, respectively. Fossil fuels led in average annual employment (0.02 employees/MW) with low cost salaries (USD 0.09/MW) likely due to high collective capacity, which is declining. Estimated rates in this study and framework will aid power industry transition and operational decision makers.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.publisherMDPI
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom2633
dc.relation.ispartofissue9
dc.relation.ispartofjournalEnergies
dc.relation.ispartofvolume14
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPhysical sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEngineering
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode51
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode40
dc.subject.keywordsScience & Technology
dc.subject.keywordsEnergy & Fuels
dc.subject.keywordselectricity generation
dc.subject.keywordswater-energy nexus
dc.titleAn Environmental and Societal Analysis of the US Electrical Energy Industry Based on the Water-Energy Nexus
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dcterms.bibliographicCitationShirkey, G; Belongeay, M; Wu, S; Ma, X; Tavakol, H; Anctil, A; Marquette-Pyatt, S; Stewart, RA; Sinha, P; Corkish, R; Chen, J; Celik, I, An Environmental and Societal Analysis of the US Electrical Energy Industry Based on the Water-Energy Nexus, Energies, 2021, 14 (9), pp. 2633
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.date.updated2021-07-22T04:54:53Z
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)
gro.rights.copyright© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorStewart, Rodney A.


Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

  • Journal articles
    Contains articles published by Griffith authors in scholarly journals.

Show simple item record