Global Forces and the Emergence of Second Generation Political Islam
Political Islam has matured over time and a second generation of Islamist political parties (2G) has emerged. Among this second generation are Turkey's Justice and Development Party (AKP), Malaysia's People's Justice Party (PKR), and Indonesia's Prosperous Justice Party (PKS). Th ese parties are Islamic in orientation and identity but base their political programs on universal principles of democracy, social justice, rule of law, human rights, pluralism, and government accountability, rather than crude appeals to implementing punitive aspects of shari'a law or creating an Islamic state in the modern, conventional sense.
Political Theory and Political Philosophy