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dc.contributor.authorAsghar, Kashif
dc.contributor.authorFarooq, Asim
dc.contributor.authorZulfiqar, Bilal
dc.contributor.authorLoya, Asif
dc.date.accessioned2021-10-14T05:54:02Z
dc.date.available2021-10-14T05:54:02Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.issn2218-4333en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.5306/wjco.v12.i6.429en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/409084
dc.description.abstractTherapeutic manipulation of the immune system in cancer has been an extensive area of research in the field of oncoimmunology. Immunosuppression regulates antitumour immune responses. An immunosuppressive enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mediates tumour immune escape in various malignancies including breast cancer. IDO upregulation in breast cancer cells may lead to the recruitment of regulatory T (T-regs) cells into the tumour microenvironment, thus inhibiting local immune responses and promoting metastasis. Immunosuppression induced by myeloid derived suppressor cells activated in an IDO-dependent manner may enhance the possibility of immune evasion in breast cancer. IDO overexpression has independent prognostic significance in a subtype of breast cancer of emerging interest, basal-like breast carcinoma. IDO inhibitors as adjuvant therapeutic agents may have clinical implications in breast cancer. This review proposes future prospects of IDO not only as a therapeutic target but also as a valuable prognostic marker for breast cancer.en_US
dc.publisherBaishideng Publishing Group Inc.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom429en_US
dc.relation.ispartofpageto436en_US
dc.relation.ispartofissue6en_US
dc.relation.ispartofjournalWorld Journal of Clinical Oncologyen_US
dc.relation.ispartofvolume12en_US
dc.titleReview of 10 years of research on breast cancer patients: Focus on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenaseen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dcterms.bibliographicCitationAsghar, K; Farooq, A; Zulfiqar, B; Loya, A, Review of 10 years of research on breast cancer patients: Focus on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, World Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2021, 12 (6), pp. 429-436en_US
dcterms.licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/en_US
dc.date.updated2021-10-13T06:30:01Z
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)en_US
gro.rights.copyright©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/en_US
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gro.griffith.authorZulfiqar, Bilal


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