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dc.contributor.authorByrnes, Troy A
dc.contributor.authorDunn, Ryan JK
dc.date.accessioned2021-10-19T02:55:21Z
dc.date.available2021-10-19T02:55:21Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.issn2077-1312en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/jmse8110908en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/409262
dc.description.abstractBoating and shipping operations, their associated activities and supporting infrastructure present a potential for environmental impacts. Such impacts include physical changes to bottom substrate and habitats from sources such as anchoring and mooring and vessel groundings, alterations to the physico-chemical properties of the water column and aquatic biota through the application of antifouling paints, operational and accidental discharges (ballast and bilge water, hydrocarbons, garbage and sewage), fauna collisions, and various other disturbances. Various measures exist to sustainably manage these impacts. In addition to a review of associated boating- and shipping-related environmental impacts, this paper provides an outline of the government- and industry-related measures relevant to achieving positive outcomes in an Australian context. Historically, direct regulations have been used to cover various environmental impacts associated with commercial, industrial, and recreational boating and shipping operations (e.g., MARPOL). The effectiveness of this approach is the degree to which compliance can be effectively monitored and enforced. To be effective, environmental managers require a comprehensive understanding of the full range of instruments available, and the respective roles they play in helping achieve positive environmental outcomes, including the pros and cons of the various regulatory alternatives.en_US
dc.description.peerreviewedYesen_US
dc.languageenen_US
dc.publisherMDPI AGen_US
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom908en_US
dc.relation.ispartofissue11en_US
dc.relation.ispartofjournalJournal of Marine Science and Engineeringen_US
dc.relation.ispartofvolume8en_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchMaritime engineeringen_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchMarine engineeringen_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchMarine and estuarine ecology (incl. marine ichthyology)en_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchShip and platform structures (incl. maritime hydrodynamics)en_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode4015en_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode401501en_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode310305en_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode401504en_US
dc.titleBoating- and Shipping-Related Environmental Impacts and Example Management Measures: A Reviewen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articlesen_US
dcterms.bibliographicCitationByrnes, TA; Dunn, RJK, Boating- and Shipping-Related Environmental Impacts and Example Management Measures: A Review, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8 (11), pp. 908en_US
dcterms.licensehttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
dc.date.updated2021-10-13T00:00:16Z
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)en_US
gro.rights.copyright© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en_US
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorDunn, Ryan J.


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