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dc.contributor.authorLuutu, Henry
dc.contributor.authorRose, Michael T
dc.contributor.authorMcIntosh, Shane
dc.contributor.authorVan Zwieten, Lukas
dc.contributor.authorRose, Terry
dc.description.abstractBackground and aims: Hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) is an alternative thermochemical method for conversion of waste to carbonised material. HTC converts high moisture biomass into hydrochar, with substantially lower energy inputs than pyrolysis since pre-drying is not required. Hydrochar is increasingly being proposed as a soil amendment; however, hydrochar addition to soils has inconsistent effects on germination and plant growth. Here, we aggregated hydrochar-plant studies to ascertain the effect of hydrochar on plant production. Method: Using meta-analysis, data from 43 published articles with 437 pairwise comparisons was synthesised to investigate the effect of hydrochar on seed germination or plant growth, and the driving factors. Results: On average, hydrochar application significantly reduced both seed germination (-38 %) and shoot biomass (-10 %) across hydrochar properties and experimental conditions. Negative impacts of hydrochar on seed germination and shoot biomass were greatest when application rates of hydrochar were above 11 t/ha (for all feedstocks except woody biomass) and 16 t/ha, respectively. At a standardised application rate of 10 t/ha, unmodified sewage sludge, animal manure and green waste hydrochars had a significant negative effect on germination, whilst food waste and woody hydrochars had no effect. Importantly, modification of hydrochar to lower toxin content significantly mitigated the negative effect on both shoot biomass and germination. Conclusions: Findings provide a basis for further research to elucidate mechanisms leading to the different plant responses following hydrochar application. Fundamentally, interactions among hydrochar dose, properties and edaphic variables are essential to understand when and where benefits may be achieved.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofjournalPlant and Soilen_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEnvironmental sciencesen_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchBiological sciencesen_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchAgricultural biotechnologyen_US
dc.subject.keywordsScience & Technologyen_US
dc.subject.keywordsLife Sciences & Biomedicineen_US
dc.subject.keywordsPlant Sciencesen_US
dc.subject.keywordsSoil Scienceen_US
dc.titlePlant growth responses to soil-applied hydrothermally-carbonised waste amendments: a meta-analysisen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articlesen_US
dcterms.bibliographicCitationLuutu, H; Rose, MT; McIntosh, S; Van Zwieten, L; Rose, T, Plant growth responses to soil-applied hydrothermally-carbonised waste amendments: a meta-analysis, Plant and Soil, 2021en_US
gro.description.notepublicThis publication has been entered in Griffith Research Online as an advanced online version.en_US
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text
gro.griffith.authorVan Zwieten, Lukas

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