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dc.contributor.authorGraham, Kathrynen_US
dc.contributor.authorBernards, Sharonen_US
dc.contributor.authorWayne Osgood, D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHomel, Rossen_US
dc.contributor.authorPurcell, Johnen_US
dc.contributor.editorGriffith Edwardsen_US
dc.date.accessioned2017-05-03T12:10:12Z
dc.date.available2017-05-03T12:10:12Z
dc.date.issued2005en_US
dc.identifier.issn09652140en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01075.xen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/4132
dc.description.abstractAims: To identify good and bad behaviors by bar staff in aggressive incidents, the extent these behaviors apparently reflect aggressive intent, and the association of aggressive staff behavior with level of aggression by patrons. Design, setting and participants: Data on staff behavior in incidents of aggression were collected by 148 trained observers in bars and clubs on Friday and Saturday night between midnight and 2 a.m. in Toronto, Canada. Behaviors of 809 staff involved in 417 incidents at 74 different bars/clubs were analysed using descriptive statistics and three-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses. Measurements: Observers' ratings of 28 staff behaviors were used to construct two scales that measured escalating/aggressive aspects of staff behavior. Apparent intent level for bar staff was dichotomized into (1) no aggressive intent versus (2) probable or definite aggressive intent. Five levels of patron aggression were defined: no aggression, non-physical, minor physical, moderate physical and severe physical. Findings: The most common aggressive behaviors of staff were identified. Staff were most aggressive when patrons were either non-aggressive or highly aggressive and staff were least aggressive when patrons exhibited non-physical aggression or minor physical aggression. Taking apparent intent into consideration decreased staff aggression scores for incidents in which patrons were highly aggressive indicating that some aggression by staff in these instances had non-aggressive intent (e.g. to prevent injury); however, apparent intent had little effect on staff aggression scores in incidents with non-aggressive patrons. Conclusion: Although there is potential for staff to act as guardians or handlers, they often themselves became offenders when they responded to barroom problems. The practical implications are different for staff aggression with nonaggressive patrons versus with aggressive patrons. KEYWORDS: Alcohol and aggression, bar staff, drinking environment, licensed premises.en_US
dc.description.peerreviewedYesen_US
dc.description.publicationstatusYesen_US
dc.languageEnglishen_US
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherBlackwell Publishingen_US
dc.publisher.placeUKen_US
dc.relation.ispartofstudentpublicationNen_US
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom755en_US
dc.relation.ispartofpageto766en_US
dc.relation.ispartofissue6en_US
dc.relation.ispartofjournalAddictionen_US
dc.relation.ispartofvolume100en_US
dc.rights.retentionNen_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode380105en_US
dc.titleGuardians and handlers: the role of bar staff in preventing and managing aggressionen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Peer Reviewed (HERDC)en_US
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articlesen_US
gro.date.issued2015-02-02T04:16:45Z
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text


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