Comparative studies of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1: evidence for a eutherian mammalian origin for the GPIHBP1 gene from an LY6-like gene
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Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) functions as a platform and transport agent for lipoprotein lipase (LPL) which functions in the hydrolysis of chylomicrons, principally in heart, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue capillary endothelial cells. Previous reports of genetic deficiency for this protein have described severe chylomicronemia. Comparative GPIHBP1 amino acid sequences and structures and GPIHBP1 gene locations were examined using data from several mammalian genome projects. Mammalian GPIHBP1 genes usually contain four coding exons on the positive strand. Mammalian GPIHBP1 sequences shared 41-96% identities as compared with 9-32% sequence identities with other LY6-domain-containing human proteins (LY6-like). The human N-glycosylation site was predominantly conserved among other mammalian GPIHBP1 proteins except cow, dog and pig. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and conserved predicted secondary structures were also examined, including the N-terminal signal peptide, the acidic amino acid sequence region which binds LPL, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkage group, the Ly6 domain and the C-terminal a-helix. Comparative and phylogenetic studies of mammalian GPIHBP1 suggested that it originated in eutherian mammals from a gene duplication event of an ancestral LY6-like gene and subsequent integration of exon 2, which may have been derived from BCL11A (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 11A gene) encoding an extended acidic amino acid sequence.
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Genetics not elsewhere classified