Vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet derived growth factor modulates the glial response to a cortical stab injury
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Traumatic injury to the brain initiates an increase in astrocyte and microglial infiltration as part of an inflammatory response to injury. Increased astrogliosis around the injury impedes regeneration of axons through the injury, while activated microglia release inflammatory mediators. The persistent inflammatory response can lead to local progressive cell death. Modulating the astrocyte and microglial response to traumatic injury therefore has potential therapeutic benefit in brain repair. We examine the modulatory effect of a single bolus of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) in combination on astrocytes and microglia to acute cerebral injury. A combination of VEGF and PDGF (20 pg) was injected into the striatum of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of treatment were assessed by quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy analyzing astrocytes and microglia across the stab injury over time. Treatment delayed the onset of astrogliosis in the centre and edge of the stab injury up to day 5; however, increased astrogliosis at areas remote to the stab injury up to day 5 was observed. A persistent astrocytic response was observed in the centre and edge of the stab injury up to day 60. Treatment altered microglia cell morphology and numbers across the stab injury, with a decrease in ramified microglia, but an increase in activated and phagocytic microglia up to day 5 after stab injury. The increased microglial response from 10 until day 60 was comprised of the ramified morphology. Thus, VEGF and PDGF applied at the same time as a stab injury to the brain initially delayed the inflammatory response up to day 5 but evoked a persistent astrogliosis and microglial response up to 60 days.
© 2011 International Brain Research Organization, published by Elsevier. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.
Central Nervous System