Impacts of ecotourism on terrestrial wildlife
The focus of this review is on disturbance to terrestrial vertebrates by people engaged in recreational activities where enjoyment of nature is a significant attraction. It also examines the consequences of such disturbance at individual and population scale, to the extent that these have been studied. This review does not include impacts on wildlife caused by hunting (Caro et al., 1998; Bauer and Giles, 2002) and fishing, except so far as (i) hunting makes wildlife wary of humans (Wathery, 1969; Weinberg et al., 1997); (ii) habituation to tourism makes wildlife vulnerable to poachers (Buckley, 2003, pp. 221-212); or )iii) hunting of prey species affects the ability of tourists to watch its predators (Gasaway et al., 1983; Kilgo et al., 1998; Novaro et al., 2000).
Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism