Comparative studies of vertebrate aldehyde dehydrogenase 3: Sequences, structures, phylogeny and evolution. Evidence for a mammalian origin for the ALDH3A1 gene
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Mammalian ALDH3 genes (ALDH3A1, ALDH3A2, ALDH3B1 and ALDH3B2) encode enzymes of peroxidic and fatty aldehyde metabolism. ALDH3A1 also plays a major role in anterior eye tissue UV-filtration. BLAT and BLAST analyses were undertaken of several vertebrate genomes using rat, chicken and zebrafish ALDH3-like amino acid sequences. Predicted vertebrate ALDH3 sequences and structures were highly conserved, including residues involved in catalysis, coenzyme binding and enzyme structure as reported by Liu et al.  for rat ALDH3A1. Phylogeny studies of human, rat, opossum, platypus, chicken, xenopus and zebrafish ALDH3-like sequences supported three hypotheses: (1) the mammalian ALDH3A1 gene was generated by a tandem duplication event of an ancestral vertebrate ALDH3A2 gene; (2) multiple mammalian and chicken ALDH3B-like genes were generated by tandem duplication events within genomes of related species; and (3) vertebrate ALDH3A and ALDH3B genes were generated prior to the appearance of bony fish more than 500 million years ago.
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