Historical transoceanic dispersal of a freshwater shrimp: the colonization of the South Pacific by the genus Paratya (Atyidae)
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Aim To infer the phylogenetic relationships within the freshwater shrimp genus Paratya Miers, 1882 (Atyidae) and to use these data to answer biogeographical questions about the location, timing and form of evolution of this genus in the South Pacific. Location Paratya are spread throughout various freshwater habitats in the western Pacific, with a disjunct northern range in the North Pacific (Japan, Korea, Ryukyu Islands, Siberia) and South Pacific (Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Lord Howe, Norfolk Island). Methods Specimens were obtained from throughout its range. Mitochondrial sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal DNA were analysed using phylogenetic techniques to identify whether landmasses are monophyletic and what the relationships are between landmasses. Molecular clock dating methods were used to date divergences between taxa. Results Each landmass was recovered as monophyletic. Japan/Ryukyu Islands is the most basal group, followed by New Zealand. Australian specimens form a sister group to a clade made up of two groups (New Caledonia and Lord Howe/Norfolk Island). The oldest divergence within the genus (between North and South Pacific) took place 12 -19 Ma. Main conclusions The geographical origin of the genus (either Gondwana or Laurasia) is unclear. Dispersal occurred between the North and South Pacific long after the split up of Gondwana. Dispersal likely explains the presence of Paratya on each landmass in the South Pacific, from continent to isolated oceanic island. This dispersal is conjectured to have taken place through oceanic currents because of the amphidromous life cycle of some taxa of Paratya, given that amphyidromy is plesiomorphic in atyid shrimp.
Journal of Biogeography