Potential molecular targets for inhibiting bone invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma: a review of mechanisms
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Abstract Bone invasion is a common characteristic of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), with adverse affects on patient functionality and survival. Recent studies suggest that it is osteoclasts, rather than malignant keratinocytes themselves, which play the major role in facilitating the entry of the tumour into bone, and its progression within bone. Osteoclasts respond to a variety of local signalling pathways, initiated by products of the malignant epithelial cells. In the present review, we firstly introduce the clinical patterns of bone invasion, and then summarise these signalling pathways and their diverse roles in sequential phases of bone invasion. We also review current researches regarding the incidence and mechanisms of distant metastases to bone, and explain briefly the concept of epithelialmesenchymal transition, which may generate cancer stem cells and initiate the bone invasion. Finally, we discuss more briefly approaches to the diagnosis and management of OSCC patients with bone invasion. With all these studies and some recent discoveries in our own laboratory, an enhanced understanding of bone invasion will be achieved, which should indicate potential molecular targets for future biotherapies.
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews
Copyright 2011 Springer Netherlands. This is an electronic version of an article published in Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, June 2012, Volume 31, Issue 1-2, pp 209-219. Cancer and Metastasis Reviews is available online at: http://www.springerlink.com/ with the open URL of your article.
Medical and Health Sciences not elsewhere classified