Impact of offending trajectories on health: disability, hospitalisation and death in middle-aged men in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development
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Background An anti-social lifestyle has been found to be associated with a higher likelihood of injury but a lower likelihood of organic illness up to the age of 32 years. It is not known if these associations persist into the fifth decade nor whether adverse health conditions are differently distributed across distinct offending trajectories. Hypotheses Hypotheses were that adverse health outcomes by the age of 48 years would vary across distinct trajectories and specifically that poor health would be most pronounced amongst the highest-rate chronic offenders, even after controlling for childhood individual and environmental risk factors. Methods Injury and illness data were collected prospectively from boys of age 8 years in the course of the longitudinal Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Results By the age of 48 years, offending trajectories differed significantly from one another on two specific health outcomes: being registered disabled and hospitalisation. High-rate chronic offenders had the highest risk for both of these outcomes. Logistic regression modelling ruled out individual or environmental childhood risk factors for offending as a likely common cause of the health problems.
Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health
Causes and Prevention of Crime