N-nitrosodimethylamine and trihalomethane formation and minimisation in Southeast Queensland drinking water
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This study assesses the prevalence of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors in some Southeast Queensland drinking water sources by conducting formation potential experiments for the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs), and the potent carcinogen, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). NDMA formation potentials were consistently low (<5-21 ng/L), and total THM (tTHM) formation potentials were consistently below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline (250 姯L). NDMA concentration of finished drinking waters was also monitored and found to be <5 ng/L in all cases. The effect of coagulation and advanced oxidation on the formation of NDMA and THMs is also reported. UV/ H2O2 pre-treatment was effective in producing water with very low THMs concentrations, and UVirradiation was an effective method for NDMA degradation. H2O2 was not required for the observed NDMA degradation to occur. Coagulation using alum, ferric chloride or poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC) was ineffective in removing DBPs precursors from the source water studied, irrespective of the low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) attained. Rather, coagulation with polyDADMAC caused an increase in NDMA formation potential upon chloramination, and all coagulants led to an increased tTHM formation potential upon chlorination due to the high bromide concentration of the source water studied.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
© 2011 Springer Netherlands. This is an electronic version of an article published in Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, July 2012, Volume 184, Issue 7, pp 4207-4222. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment is available online at: http://link.springer.com/ with the open URL of your article.
Analytical Chemistry not elsewhere classified