Demographic effects on the use of vertical sources of guidance by managers in widely differing cultural contexts
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Data provided by 7380 middle managers from 60 nations are used to determine whether demographic variables are correlated with managers' reliance on vertical sources of guidance in different nations and whether these correlations differ depending on national culture characteristics. Significant effects of Hofstede's national culture scores, age, gender, organization ownership and department function are found. After these main effects have been discounted, significant although weak interactions are found, indicating that demographic effects are stronger in individualist, low power distance nations than elsewhere. Significant non-predicted interaction effects of uncertainty avoidance and masculinity-femininity are also obtained. The implications for theory and practice of the use of demographic attributes in understanding effective management procedures in various parts of the world are discussed.
International Journal of Cross Cultural Management