Quantifying the influence of residential water appliance efficiency on average day diurnal demand patterns at an end use level: A precursor to optimised water service infrastructure planning
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Residential water consumption reductions resulting from water efficiency measures has received much research attention in recent years; however, research into the contribution of such measures to reductions in hourly water demand and flow-on benefits to urban water service infrastructure capital efficiency is still in its infancy. In an attempt to shed light on this issue, this study examined the degree of influence that clustered sets of 191 households participating in an Australian smart metering study, based on their weighted household water stock efficiency star rating classification (e.g. taps, shower heads, clothes washers), had on average day (AD) diurnal demand patterns at a water end use level. Results showed a statistically significant reduction in AD peak hour water consumption in homes with higher composite fixture/appliance star ratings. Paired comparison between households with a greater than three star efficiency with those of a lower star rating showed a reduction in AD morning and evening peak hour demand of 15.35% and 16.64%, respectively. The paper concludes with a discussion on the pipe network modelling and capital infrastructure efficiency implications derived from better understanding on the likely reductions in AD peak hour water demand, due to residential water stock efficiency measures.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling
Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V.. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.
Water Resources Engineering
Engineering Design Methods