Optimization of colorimetric DET technique for the in situ, two-dimensional measurement of iron(II) distributions in sediment porewaters
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The recently developed colorimetric diffusive equilibration in thin films (DET) technique for the in situ, high-resolution measurement of iron(II) in marine sediments is optimized to allow measurement of the higher iron concentrations typical of freshwater sediment porewaters. Computer imaging densitometry (CID) is used to analyze the retrieved samplers following exposure to ferrozine, a colorimetric reagent selective for iron(II). The effect of ferrozine concentration, image processing parameters and ionic strength are investigated to improve the applicability of this technique to a wider range of aquatic systems than reported in the first publications of this approach. The technique was optimized to allow detection of up to 2000 孯l L-1 iron(II), a four-fold increase on the previous upper detection limit of 500 孯l L-1. The CID processing of the scanned color image was also optimized to adjust the sensitivity of the assay as required; by processing the image with different color channel filters, the sensitivity of the assay can be optimized for lower concentrations (up to 100 孯l L-1) or higher concentrations (up to 2000 孯l L-1) of iron(II), depending on the specific site characteristics. This process does not require separate sampling probes or even separate scans of the DET gels as the color filter and grayscale conversion is done post-image capture. The optimized technique is very simple to use and provides highly representative, high-resolution (1 mm) two-dimensional distributions of iron(II) in sediment porewaters. The detection limit of the optimized technique was 4.1 ᠰ.3 孯l L-1 iron(II) and relative standard deviations were less than 6%.
Sensor Technology (Chemical aspects)
Soil Chemistry (excl. Carbon Sequestration Science)