Universality of the Heisenberg limit for estimates of random phase shifts
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The Heisenberg limit traditionally provides a lower bound on the phase uncertainty scaling as 1/ N , where N is the mean number of photons in the probe. However, this limit has a number of loopholes which potentially might be exploited to achieve measurements with even greater accuracy. Here we close these loopholes by proving a completely rigorous form of the Heisenberg limit for the average error over all phase shifts, applicable to any estimate of a completely unknown phase shift. Our result gives a completely general, constraint-free, and nonasymptotic statement of the Heisenberg limit. It holds for all phase estimation schemes, including multiple passes, nonlinear phase shifts, multimode probes, and arbitrary measurements.
Physical Review A
Copyright 2012 American Physical Society. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.
Quantum Information, Computation and Communication