On the overlap between victimization and offending: A review of the literature
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Theoretical and empirical research investigating victimization and offending has largely been either 'victim-focused' or 'offender-focused.' This approach ignores the potential theoretical and empirical overlap that may exist among victims and offenders, otherwise referred to as 'victim-offenders.' This paper provides a comprehensive review of the research that has examined the relationship between victimization and offending. The review identified 37 studies, spanning over five decades (1958-2011), that have assessed the victim-offender overlap. The empirical evidence gleaned from these studies with regard to the victim-offender overlap is robust as 31 studies found considerable support for the overlap and six additional studies found mixed/limited support. The evidence is also remarkably consistent across a diversity of analytical and statistical techniques and across historical, contemporary, cross-cultural, and international assessments of the victim-offender overlap. In addition, this overlap is identifiable among dating/intimate partners and mental health populations. Conclusions and directions for future research are also discussed.
Aggression and Violent Behavior
Causes and Prevention of Crime