Case study: Occurrence of non-regulated disinfection by-products from the capalaba region’s distribution system
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A survey of disinfection by-product (DBP) occurrence was conducted at the Capalaba Water Treatment Plant (WTP) in Brisbane and at nineteen sampling points of the distribution system for six months through spring-summer 2011. In addition to currently regulated DBPs including N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), DBPs that were reported as high priority due to potential toxicity were studied. These priority DBPs included five iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs), four haloacetonitriles (HANs), two haloketones (HK), chloronitromethane and chloral hydrate (CH). Results showed that all the measured regulated DBPs including CH were below the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) recommendations. THM speciation followed the order trichloromethane (TCM) > bromodichloromethane (BDCM) > dibromochloromethane (DBCM) > tribromomethane (TBM) in waters provided by the Capalaba WTP. The order was DBCM>BCDM>TBM>TCM for waters provided by the North Stradbroke Island (NSI) WTP as a result of different dissolved organic carbon/bromide (DOC/Br) ratios. HANs were measured at the WTP and across the distribution system at significant concentrations, but still lower than the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations in the case of dichloroacetonitrile and dibromoacetonitrile. Speciation of brominated and chlorinated HANs followed the trends observed for THMs. The formation of iodinated-THMs was low, in agreement with the iodide concentration measured. NDMA was not detected above the limit of detection (5 ng/L). NDMA formation potential of source water at the Capalaba WTP was 11.4 ᠳ.4 ng/L, which is well below the ADWG (ie, 100 ng/L).
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Environmental Science and Management not elsewhere classified