Micro and macro level determinants of sport participation
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Purpose - Sport participation is not exclusively determined by individual socio-demographic factors (micro level) since infrastructure factors such as the availability of sport facilities and sport programmes (macro level) can also play a role in this regard. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for these determinants of sport participation using multi-level analyses. Design/methodology/approach - A survey among the resident population in the city of Munich was carried out in 2008 (n=11,715). Furthermore, secondary data on the available sport infrastructure in every urban district of Munich (n=25) were collected. Multi-level analyses were conducted to find the micro and macro level determinants of sport participation. Findings - The results show that aside from micro level factors, the availability of swimming pools and parks is especially important for residents' sport activity. Moreover, sport activity in non-profit sport clubs can be enhanced by both a good supply of sport programmes offered by sport clubs as well as a poor supply of programmes from commercial sport providers and the municipality. Research limitations/implications - Multi-level analyses can be recommended for future research on sport participation. The use of GIS data would be fruitful in this regard. Practical implications - It can be recommended that municipalities invest in the construction of swimming pools and parks. Originality/value - The paper shows that multi-level analyses are a relatively new method of analysis for research on sport participation and that they represent the most suitable approach for analysing multi-level data.
Sport, Business, Management
Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services not elsewhere classified