Perception of Sustainable Development and Education for Sustainable Development by African Technology Education Academics
The current co-existence of environmental education (EE) and education for sustainable development (ESD) poses a number of questions for educators and policy makers regarding the differences and similarities between EE and ESD. This co-existence has created a concern among international and national communities regarding overlap and duplication of goals and programs in EE and ESD. The simultaneous existence and development of EE and ESD has resulted in some confusion in policy formulation and implementation. Lack of clarity has sometimes led to inefficiencies in achieving goals and development of initiatives. Some countries call for distinctions, others for convergence between the EE and ESD (UNESCO, 2009). This paper reflects on the historical development of EE and ESD to identify similarities and differences between the concepts. It suggests that differences in the models of EE and ESD relationships can be seen in technology education policies and practices. The paper argues that an emphasis on the social dimension of design for SD need to be strengthened to align technology education with global developments.
PATT 26 Conference, Technology Education in the 21st Century
Curriculum and Pedagogy Theory and Development