CCL2 and CXCL2 enhance survival of primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is predominantly a disease of accumulation rather than rapid proliferation. To date, no cell lines exist, as CLL cells undergo rapid apoptosis when cultured in vitro, suggesting that a favorable in vivo microenvironment is required. To identify survival signals we cultured primary CLL peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at high density, which has previously been shown to dramatically improve survival. Using antibody arrays we measured the level of 42 cytokines in culture supernatants and showed that inerleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, CXCL2 and CCL2 were highly up-regulated in culture. This is the first report to describe a role for CCL2 and CXCL2 in CLL cell survival. Importantly, CXCL2, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly up-regulated in primary patient plasma. The addition of either CXCL2 or CCL2 enhanced CLL cell survival, while antibodies blocking these chemokines reduced survival. Co-culture of CLL cells and PBMC accessory cells separated by transwells provided a similar degree of survival protection compared to normal culture, whereas CLL cells cultured alone died rapidly. Interestingly, CCL2 and CXCL2 appeared to be produced by CLL cells but only when co-cultured with accessory cells. Thus, we speculate that accessory cells release soluble factors that promote the production of these pro-survival chemokines from CLL cells and physical interactions are not required. Our data support the concept that the CLL microenvironment is critical, and suggests that soluble factors are more important than physical interactions. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10428194.2012.672735
Leukemia and Lymphoma
© 2012 Informa Healthcare. This is an electronic version of an article published in Leukemia and Lymphoma, October 2012, Vol. 53, No. 10 , Pages 1988-1998. Leukemia and Lymphoma is available online at: http://informahealthcare.com with the open URL of your article.
Oncology and Carcinogenesis not elsewhere classified