Microwave-accelerated Fischer glycosylation.
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Fischer glycosylation has been used for decades for the synthesis of simple alkyl and aryl glycosides from free sugars. The reaction proceeds under reflux in the presence of catalytic acid with the alcohol as solvent. The main deficiency of this reaction is the long reaction time required. In this study microwave heating has been utilised for the Fischer glycosylation reaction of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, d-glucose, d-galactose and d-mannose with a variety of alcohols (methanol, ethanol, benzyl alcohol and allyl alcohol). Remarkable acceleration of the glycosylation reactions (minutes compared to hours) over conventional reflux heating was observed with good yields and production of the a-glycoside as the dominant product.
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