Melt electrospun calcium phosphate coated scaffolds accelerate ectopic bone formation in the context of a long term cultured cellular construct
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Calcium phosphates (CaP) obtained by biomineralisation in Simulated Boby Fluid have been used for decades to assess the mineralisation capability of biomaterials. Recently, they have been envisioned as potential agents to promote bone formation. In this study, we have fabricated and coated with calcium phosphate melt electrospun scaffolds whereby macropores permit adequate cell migration and nutrient transfer. We have systematically investigated the effect of coating and osteoinduction onto the response of ovine osteoblasts and we observed that the coating up-regulated alkaline phosphatase activity regardless of the in vitro culture conditions. Micro Computed Tomography revealed that only scaffolds cultured in an osteoinductive cocktail were capable of depositing mineralised matrix, and that CaP coated scaffolds were more efficient at promoting mineralisation. Theses scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in athymic rats and this demonstrated that the osteoinduction was a pre-requisite for bone formation in this ectopic model. It showed that although the bone formation was not significantly different after 8 weeks, the CaP coated scaffolds were superior at inducing bone formation as evidenced by higher levels of mineralisation at earlier time points. This work demonstrated that CaP coating is not sufficient to induce bone formation; however the combination of osteoinduction and CaP coating resulted in earlier bone formation in an ectopic model.
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine