Identity verification using speech and face information
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This article first provides an review of important concepts in the field of information fusion, followed by a review of important milestones in audio-visual person identification and verification. Several recent adaptive and nonadaptive techniques for reaching the verification decision (i.e., to accept or reject the claimant), based on speech and face information, are then evaluated in clean and noisy audio conditions on a common database; it is shown that in clean conditions most of the nonadaptive approaches provide similar performance and in noisy conditions most exhibit a severe deterioration in performance; it is also shown that current adaptive approaches are either inadequate or utilize restrictive assumptions. A new category of classifiers is then introduced, where the decision boundary is fixed but constructed to take into account how the distributions of opinions are likely to change due to noisy conditions; compared to a previously proposed adaptive approach, the proposed classifiers do not make a direct assumption about the type of noise that causes the mismatch between training and testing conditions.
Digital Signal Processing
Copyright 2004 Elsevier. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.