The plant-derived glucocorticoid receptor agonist endiandrin A acts as co-stimulator of colonic epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) via SGK-1 and MAPKs
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In a search for secondary plant compounds that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the cyclobutane lignan endiandrin A was discovered from the rainforest tree Endiandra anthropophagorum Domin. Our present study aims to characterize the effect of endiandrin A on GR-dependent induction of colonic sodium transport. The effect of endiandrin A was analyzed in GR-expressing colonic HT-29/B6 cells (HT-29/B6-GR). GR transactivation and subcellular localization were investigated by reporter gene assay and immunofluorescence. Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) was analyzed by qRT-PCR and by measuring amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current (Isc) in Ussing chambers. Endiandrin A (End A) has been identified as GR receptor binder. However, it did not cause significant GR transactivation as pGRE-luciferase activity was only 7% of that of the maximum effect of dexamethasone. Interestingly, endiandrin A had a significant impact on dexamethasone-dependent sodium absorption in cells co-exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a. This was in part due to up-regulation of ߭ and ?-ENaC subunit expression. Endiandrin A potentiated GR-mediated transcription by increasing GR protein expression and phosphorylation. It inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation induced by dexamethasone and/or TNF-a and increased levels of GR localized to the nucleus. Additionally, endiandrin A increased the serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (sgk)-1 via activation of p38. Finally, the regulation of ENaC function by endiandrin A was confirmed in rat native colon. In conclusion, endiandrin A potentiates glucocorticoid-driven activation of colonic epithelial sodium channels via JNK inhibition and p38 activation due to transcriptional up-regulation of ߭ and ?-ENaC-subunits along with induction of sgk-1.
© 2012 Kuntzsch et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CCAL. (http://www.plos.org/journals/license.html)
Biologically Active Molecules