Mitochondrial DNA signatures of restricted gene flow within divergent lineages of an atyid shrimp (Paratya australiensis)
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We measured spatial genetic structure within three previously described mitochondrial lineages of the atyid shrimp, Paratya australiensis, occurring in upland streams of two major catchments within the Sydney Water Supply Catchment, New South Wales, Australia. In all three lineages, there was significant spatial structuring of genetic variation between catchments. In two lineages, recurrent but restricted maternal gene flow has apparently predominated in shaping within-catchment genetic structure, although this framework may be overlaid with episodic contiguous/long-distance expansion events. In the third lineage, there was no evidence of spatial genetic structuring within one of the catchments, because one haplotype was both common and widespread throughout the sampled area. High-frequency haplotypes were also shared among subcatchments in the other two lineages, and we discuss both historical and contemporary processes that may have left these genetic signatures. Our results are generally concordant with previous reports of significant population structuring in P. australiensis, occurring in upland river reaches elsewhere in eastern Australia. We propose that restricted dispersal and gene flow among upland populations of P. australiensis is linked to dramatic architectural structuring within and among mountain streams.