Planning for Better Management of Crises and Enhancement of Response Capability: Focused on Iran and Australia
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Every year, numerous natural, man-made, and social disasters occur in the world. Throughout human history, crisis has been an inherent part of human existence. All human beings experience crisis, uncertainty, and environmental threats. Even though a society might initially appear to be safe, the potential for crisis does exist. Most nations in the world have been affected by numerous crises, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, chemical spills, collapsing buildings, and so on. Crises scramble plans, interrupt continuities, and brutally paralyze normal governmental operations and human lives. Society would pay a heavy price during times of crisis if there was not an organization prepared to deal with such an event. This is why more people demand that the government, which is responsible for protecting the life and safety of citizens, prepare to respond to crisis proactively and effectively. Crises tend to encourage policy change in a number of ways, although the specific dynamics may vary from one crisis situation to another. Crisis management or resolution requires strategic thinking of contingencies. Crises also develop opportunities, which must be explored through mobilization of assets and forces available. Disaster affects different countries differently. In Australia the major flood in 2011 had a significant effect on people's life. It caused catastrophic damages to lifelines and infrastructures. During its long history, Iran has experienced a number of tragic disasters. Some of recent disasters include eight years of imposed war of Iraq against Iran, the Manjil and Roodbar earthquake, the Bam earthquake, the agricultural damages due to severe droughts, flood crisis in some parts of country and so on. The massive death toll and property damage caused by these disasters could have been reduced substantially if the government had been more prepared and better organized actions had been taken. Some Crises can be managed successfully while others lead to failures and further disasters. Some lead to new and positive changes in society, while others lead to further calamities. This paper gives a comprehensive definition of various kinds of crises and discusses processes leading to a better management of contingent crises that in turn can significantly decrease the amount of damages and sufferings.
Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2012 Conference
© 2012 Australian Earthquake Engineering Society (AEES) . The attached file is reproduced here in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the conference's website for access to the definitive, published version.