Parametric Manifold of an Object under Different Viewing Directions
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The appearance of a 3D object depends on both the viewing directions and illumination conditions. It is proven that all n-pixel images of a convex object with Lambertian surface under variable lighting from infinity form a convex polyhedral cone (called illumination cone) in n-dimensional space. This paper tries to answer the other half of the question: What is the set of images of an object under all viewing directions? A novel image representation is proposed, which transforms any n-pixel image of a 3D object to a vector in a 2n-dimensional pose space. In such a pose space, we prove that the transformed images of a 3D object under all viewing directions form a parametric manifold in a 6-dimensional linear subspace. With in-depth rotations along a single axis in particular, this manifold is an ellipse. Furthermore, we show that this parametric pose manifold of a convex object can be estimated from a few images in different poses and used to predict object's appearances under unseen viewing directions. These results immediately suggest a number of approaches to object recognition, scene detection, and 3D modelling. Experiments on both synthetic data and real images were reported, which demonstrates the validity of the proposed representation.
Computer Vision – ECCV 2012. 12th European Conference on Computer Vision, Florence, Italy, October 7-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part V