Human Health Risks Associated With Constructed Lakes In Australian Peri-Urban Developments
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Constructed lakes are being promoted as focal points for recreation and relaxation in peri-urban residential developments but the health risks that may exist in these settings are poorly understood. The overall aim of this study was to identify and characterise health risks associated with hazards in freshwater constructed lakes in a peri-urban development. A screening level risk assessment guided by the Australian Guidelines for Managing Risks in Recreational Water investigated seven hazard categories: microbial water quality, chemical hazards, cyanobacteria, physical hazards, dangerous aquatic organisms, temperature, and aesthetics aspects. Risks from chemical hazards were identified to be minimal. The microbial water quality of CPL was categorised as 'poor' with an associated gastrointestinal illness risk of 5-10% and an acute febrile respiratory illness risk of 1.9-3.9%. Faecal sterol profiling identified birds and dogs as the most likely sources of faecal contamination. Risks associated with cyanobacteria could not be determined conclusively and require further investigation. Risks of drowning, spinal and impact injuries associated with physical hazards were considered to be important. Teenagers and children under 12 years were most frequently exposed overall. Secondary contact exposure was more common than primary contact exposure, with most frequent exposures observed following rainfall events.
Proceedings of the International Water Association World Water Congress
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Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified
Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety