Detection of genetic alterations in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and adjacent normal epithelia by comparative DNA fingerprinting using inter-simple sequence repeat PCR.
MetadataShow full item record
In this study, we screened 19 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) for the detection of genetic alterations using inter-simple sequence repeat PCR, a DNA fingerprinting approach. Three simple repetitive unanchored primers representing tri- and tetranucleotide repeats [(GTG)5, (GACA)4, and (GATA)4] were used, and evidence of gains and losses of chromosomal sequences were detected in all tumors (19 of 19 cases) for at least one of the primers. In 13 of these cases, apparently normal marginal epithelia adjacent to the tumors were also collected and examined. Eight of the 13 (62%) patients showed matching somatic mutations in the marginal epithelia adjacent to the tumors. Five of these 8 (63%) marginal epithelial samples were histologically normal, two were dysplastic, and one had extremely rare tumor cells. In 3 of these 13 (23%) cases, the profile bands were also seen to quantitatively increase in intensity, progressing from normal epithelia to marginal epithelia to tumors. Ten profile bands showing gains and one profile band showing loss in tumors compared with the corresponding normal epithelia were cloned, and their origins were determined by sequencing. The DNA sequence of one of the profile bands showing gain in the tumor could be matched to an expressed sequence tag sequence that has been mapped to the 7q22 region, a genomic amplification novel to ESCC. The sequence of the other profile band showing gain in the tumor could be matched to a nonexonic sequence of chromosome 20, whereas the sequences of the remaining profile bands could not be matched with any known sequences after comparison with the genomic sequence data in the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and GenBank databases. The bona fide nature of the gains or losses of 11 profile bands in the original cases was confirmed by direct genomic PCR amplification. The frequencies of these specific gene alterations in tumors were then analyzed in a total of 60 ESCCs, which included 41 additional cases of ESCC. Significantly, 26 of 60 (43%) tumors showed the DNA amplification for the expressed sequence tag sequence of chromosome 7, whereas the frequency of other individual gene alterations ranged from 7% to 15%. It is concluded that the inter-simple sequence repeat PCR strategy is adequate for the detection of somatic mutations in tumors, most of which are quantitative alterations in anonymous genomic sequences. This approach is also suitable for detection of somatic mutations preceding the onset of morphologically detectable neoplasia in ESCC.
Clinical Cancer Research