Local Fluctuation Theorem for Large Systems
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The fluctuation theorem characterizes the distribution of the dissipation in nonequilibrium systems and proves that the average dissipation will be positive. For a large system with no external source of fluctuation, fluctuations in properties will become unobservable and details of the fluctuation theorem are unable to be explored. In this Letter, we consider such a situation and show how a fluctuation theorem can be obtained for a small open subsystem within the large system. We find that a correction term has to be added to the large system fluctuation theorem due to correlation of the subsystem with the surroundings. Its analytic expression can be derived provided some general assumptions are fulfilled, and its relevance is checked using numerical simulations.
Physical Review Letters
Copyright 2013 American Physical Society. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.
Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics
Statistical Mechanics, Physical Combinatorics and Mathematical Aspects of Condensed Matter