Co-regulatory potential of vascular endothelial growth factor-A and vascular endothelial growth factor-C in thyroid carcinoma
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes growth of blood or lymphatic vessels. The aim of the current study is to identify relationships between VEGF-A and VEGF-C, and their impact in angiogenesis and metastases in thyroid cancers. VEGF-A and VEGF-C mRNA and protein expression was investigated in 136 thyroid cancers (123 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 13 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas) and 40 matched lymph node metastases with papillary thyroid carcinoma using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. VEGF-A and VEGF-C mRNA expression was significantly different between conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas (P = 1 נ10-6 and 1 נ10-5, respectively). In undifferentiated carcinoma, VEGF-A and VEGF-C protein overexpression was noted in all cases. VEGF-A and VEGF-C mRNA overexpression was noted in 51% (n = 62) and 27% (n = 33) of the papillary thyroid carcinomas, whereas VEGF-A and VEGF-C protein overexpression was also identified in 70% (n = 86) and 62% (n = 76) of the carcinomas. VEGF-A mRNA was significantly higher in cancers with lymph node metastases compared with nonmetastatic cancers (P = .001), whereas most metastatic cancers underexpressed VEGF-C (P = .0002), with a similar trend for protein. The expression of VEGF-A and VEGF-C correlated with each other at both mRNA and protein levels (P = .00004 and .003, respectively). In summary, VEGF-A and -C expressions correlate with the pathological parameters and metastatic status of thyroid carcinomas. The significant correlations between the expressions of these genes add weight to hypotheses concerning VEGF-A and -C interaction in cancer progression.
Medical and Health Sciences not elsewhere classified