Chemokine receptor expression on integrin-mediated stellate projections of prostate cancer cells in 3D Culture
The chemokine receptor CXCR7 has emerged as a regulator of prostate tumor growth and invasion, along with the well-established role of its closely related receptor, CXCR4, and their shared ligand, SDF-1a. Consequently, inhibition of the CXCR7/CXCR4/SDF-1a axis may assist in controlling prostate tumor growth and progression. To facilitate the development of potential therapeutics, further clarification of CXCR7 function is required, specifically in relation to CXCR4. In this study, we report that CXCR7 and CXCR4 were co-expressed in LNCaP, DU145 and PC3 cell lines in 2D culture. When cultured in 3D using Matrigel, a marked up-regulation of both receptors was observed in PC3 cells. Interestingly, both CXCR7 and CXCR4 co-localized within radiating cellular structures, termed stellate projections, which protruded outward into the matrix. The stellate projections were rich in the expression of pro-invasive integrin ߱, ߭laminin and MMP-11 proteins. The development of the stellate projections was mediated by integrin ߱-mediated interactions with the ECM, which also regulated the expression of CXCR7 and CXCR4. Taken together, these results demonstrate that integrin-mediated cell-ECM interactions can modulate tumor cell morphology, and regulate the expression of chemokine receptors which are associated with the invasive phenotype and progression of PCa.
Medicinal and Biomolecular Chemistry not elsewhere classified