Carbohydrates as Inhibitors of Rotaviral Infection
This chapter investigates carbohydrates as inhibitors of rotaviral infection, and discusses strategies towards the development of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of rotavirus rather than vaccine strategies. This focuses on efforts directed at developing drug candidates based on the interaction between rotavirus and its host-cell receptor. Two opposing hypotheses that have been proposed about how rotaviruses gain entry into host cells are: through direct entry or fusion and through Ca2+-dependent endocytosis. Much of the conjecture surrounding the host-cell receptor for rotavirus centers on the postulated involvement of particular cell surface carbohydrates, most notably sialic acids [for example, N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, 1) or N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc, 2)]. The binding of rotavirus to host cells has generally been considered as being either dependent on or independent of the presence of sialic acids in host-cell surface glycoconjugates. The inhibition of rotavirus by naturally-derived substances is also discussed. The chapter outlines the methodology related to the development of carbohydrate-based inhibitors of rotavirus such as synthesis of sialylmimetics and biological evaluation of sialylmimetics.
Recognition of carbohydrates in biological systems
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