Lithographic pattern formation via metastable state rare gas atomic beams
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Atomic beams of argon and neon in excited electronic metastable states have been used to pattern bare and dodecanethiol (DDT) resist coated Au/Si substrates. Positive and negative contrast patterning has been observed for DDT-Au/Si, and negative patterning has been observed for bare Au/Si. Our results provide evidence for the formation of these negative patterns resulting from significant background pump oil contamination, and at significantly lower metastable dosages than previously observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate the growth of a carbonaceous layer as the origin of the negative resists in DDT-Au/Si and bare Au/Si substrates. For DDT-Au/Si, results indicate that the transition from positive to negative resist formation relies both on the metastable dosages and level of background pump oil contamination.