Syntheses, structures and hydrolytic properties of copper(II) complexes of asymmetrically N-functionalised 1,4,7-triazacyclononane ligands
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A series of new asymmetrically N-substituted derivatives of the 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn) macrocycle have been prepared from the common precursor 1,4,7-triazatricyclo[5.2.1.04,10]decane: 1-ethyl-4-isopropyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L1), 1-isopropyl-4-propyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L2), 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-benzyl-7-isopropyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L3), 1-benzyl-4-isopropyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L4) and 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)-7-isopropyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L5). The corresponding monomeric copper(II) complexes were synthesised and were found to be of composition: [Cu(L1)Cl2] 砱/2 H2O (C1), [Cu(L4)Cl2] 破H2O (C2), [Cu(L3)(MeCN)](ClO4)2 (C3), [Cu(L5)](ClO4)2 砍eCN 砎aClO4 (C4) and [Cu(L2)Cl2] 砱/2 H2O (C5). The X-ray crystal structures of each complex revealed a distorted square-pyramidal copper(II) geometry, with the nitrogen donors on the ligands occupying 3 (C1 and C2), 4 (C3) or 5 (C4) coordination sites on the Cu(II) centre. The metal complexes were tested for the ability to hydrolytically cleave phosphate esters at near physiological conditions, using the model phosphodiester, bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate (BNPP). The observed rate constants for BNPP cleavage followed the order kC1 蠫C2 > kC5 much greater-than kC3 > kC4, confirming that tacn-type Cu(II) complexes efficiently accelerate phosphate ester hydrolysis by being able to bind phosphate esters and also form the nucleophile necessary to carry out intramolecular cleavage. Complexes C1 and C2, featuring asymmetrically disubstituted ligands, exhibited rate constants of the same order of magnitude as those reported for the Cu(II) complexes of symmetrically tri-N-alkylated tacn ligands (k not, vert, similar 1.5 נ10-5 s-1).
Transition Metal Chemistry