Markers of disease severity are associated with malnutrition in Parkinson's disease
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Objective In Parkinson's disease (PD), commonly reported risk factors for malnutrition in other populations commonly occur. Few studies have explored which of these factors are of particular importance in malnutrition in PD. The aim was to identify the determinants of nutritional status in people with Parkinson's disease (PWP). Methods Community-dwelling PWP (>18 years) were recruited (n = 125; 73M/52F; Mdn 70 years). Self-report assessments included Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease - Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT), Modified Constipation Assessment Scale (MCAS) and Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG-Q). Information about age, PD duration, medications, co-morbid conditions and living situation was obtained. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II and UPDRS III were performed. Nutritional status was assessed using the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) as part of the scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). Results Nineteen (15%) were malnourished (SGA-B). Median PG-SGA score was 3. More of the malnourished were elderly (84% vs. 71%) and had more severe disease (H&Y: 21% vs. 5%). UPDRS II and UPDRS III scores and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD)/body weight(mg/kg) were significantly higher in the malnourished (Mdn 18 vs. 15; 20 vs. 15; 10.1 vs. 7.6 respectively). Regression analyses revealed older age at diagnosis, higher LEDD/body weight (mg/kg), greater UPDRS III score, lower STAI score and higher BDI score as significant predictors of malnutrition (SGA-B). Living alone and higher BDI and UPDRS III scores were significant predictors of a higher log-adjusted PG-SGA score. Conclusions In this sample of PWP, the rate of malnutrition was higher than that previously reported in the general community. Nutrition screening should occur regularly in those with more severe disease and depression. Community support should be provided to PWP living alone. Dopaminergic medication should be reviewed with body weight changes.
Copyright 2013 Sheard et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CCAL. (http://www.plos.org/journals/license.html)
Neurology and Neuromuscular Diseases