Nutrition screening and assessment in Parkinson’s disease: a comparison of methods
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Background & aims Nutrition screening and assessment enable early identification of malnourished people and those at risk of malnutrition. Appropriate assessment tools assist with informing and monitoring nutrition interventions. Tool choice needs to be appropriate to the population and setting. Methods Community-dwelling people with Parkinson's disease (>18 years) were recruited. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from weight and height. Participants were classified as underweight according to World Health Organisation (WHO) (=18.5 kg/m2) and age specific (<65 years, =18.5 kg/m2; =65 years, =23.5 kg/m2) cut-offs. The Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) screening (MNA-SF) and total assessment scores were calculated. The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), including the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), was performed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and weighted kappa statistic of each of the above compared to SGA were determined. Results Median age of the 125 participants was 70.0(35-92) years. Age-specific BMI (Sn 68.4%, Sp 84.0%) performed better than WHO (Sn 15.8%, Sp 99.1%) categories. MNA-SF performed better (Sn 94.7%, Sp 78.3%) than both BMI categorisations for screening purposes. MNA had higher specificity but lower sensitivity than PG-SGA (MNA Sn 84.2%, Sp 87.7%; PG-SGA Sn 100.0%, Sp 69.8%). Conclusions BMI lacks sensitivity to identify malnourished people with Parkinson's disease and should be used with caution. The MNA-SF may be a better screening tool in people with Parkinson's disease. The PG-SGA performed well and may assist with informing and monitoring nutrition interventions. Further research should be conducted to validate screening and assessment tools in Parkinson's disease.
Neurology and Neuromuscular Diseases