Pain, Whiplash Disorder and Traffic Safety
Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) are a common, disabling and costly condition that occur usually as a consequence of a motor vehicle crash (MVC) with up to 50% of injured people failing to fully recover. Current management approaches have shown limited benefits for injured people both in the acute and chronic stages of the condition. Additionally, the identification of a specific peripheral lesion is usually not possible. For these reasons, research interest has focussed on the physiological and psychological manifestations of the condition which may provide information on which to base the development of new management approaches. The aim of this chapter is to outline the physiological and psychological manifestations of whiplash as well as discuss the role that stress symptoms may play in the presentation and outcomes following whiplash injury. The implications for management as well as future directions for research will be discussed.
Handbook of Pain and Palliative Care