Patient outcomes: A matter of perspective
The perspective of a professional discipline directs its practice, research, and study. Persons within nursing bring to the discipline various points of view that may influence their actions and their assessment of patient outcomes. This, in turn, can have an impact on the overall understanding of nursing's contribution to health care. As a professional discipline, nursing has a social mandate to ensure effective practice within its domain and is accountable for the outcomes of nursing practice. A review of 18 theoretical perspectives regarding patient outcomes as described by nursing's scholars and grand theorists is provided. Implications for nurses are substantial, as perspective regarding outcomes may influence many areas such as clinical practice, administration, policy, research, and education. As nursing moves forward into the 21st century, the recognition and appreciation of the legacy of nursing's contributions in the past will facilitate validation of nursing's contribution for the future.
PRE2009-Decision Support and Group Support Systems