Bonding of a self-etching primer to noncarious cervical sclerotic dentin: interfacial ultrastructure and micro-tensile bond strength evaluation
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PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the ultrastructural features of the resin-sclerotic dentin interface following the application of Clearfil Liner Bond II sigma to natural cervical wedge-shaped lesions, and 2) to evaluate the regional tensile bond strength of this self-etching primer at different locations on natural and artificially-created cervical lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Deep cervical natural lesions were bonded using the self-etching primer. Micromorphology of the bonded interface at different locations within the lesions were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray analysis (STEM/EDX). Ultrastructural features were further compared with the use of the same self-etching primer on artificial lesions created in sound cervical dentin. A nontrimming technique was used to evaluate the regional tensile bond strength from the occlusal, gingival, and the deepest central part of both natural and artificial cervical lesions. Beams with a mean area of 0.46 +/- 0.03 mm2 were prepared and were pulled to failure using a Bencor Multi-T testing device attached to an Instron universal tester. Bond strength results were evaluated using a two-way ANOVA design. RESULTS: A hypermineralized layer devoid of intact, banded collagen was invariably present on the surface of the natural lesions. Depending upon its thickness at different locations of the lesion, the action of a self-etching primer may be limited to this surface layer alone, producing a hybridized hypermineralized surface layer. Penetration of the self-etching primer into the underlying sclerotic dentin produced a hybridized complex containing a hybridized hypermineralized surface layer as well as a subsurface layer of hybridized intertubular dentin. Bacterial colonization of the lesion surface resulted in the formation of an additional zone of hybridized intermicrobial matrix over the surface of the lesions. Dentinal tubules remained blocked with sclerotic casts, and resin tags were rarely observed. Regional tensile bond strength results showed that the overall bond strength to natural sclerotic dentin was about 20% lower than sound cervical dentin, but was independent of the different locations within the lesions from which bond strength was evaluated. CONCLUSION: There were four factors that may have influenced the overall decrease in bond strength in natural cervical sclerotic lesions: a) the presence of a hybridized intermicrobial matrix together with entrapped bacteria may have weakened the bonds, b) inability of a self-etching primer to etch through a thick, hypermineralized surface layer, c) presence of a layer of possibly remineralized, denatured collagen at the base of the hypermineralized surface layer, and d) retention of acid-resistant sclerotic casts that obliterate the tubular lumina and prevent effective resin tag formation.
The Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
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