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dc.contributor.authorSterling, Michele
dc.contributor.authorElliott, James M
dc.contributor.authorCabot, Peter J
dc.date.accessioned2017-05-03T12:02:41Z
dc.date.available2017-05-03T12:02:41Z
dc.date.issued2013
dc.date.modified2014-07-07T22:19:05Z
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0077903
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/60178
dc.description.abstractTissue damage or pathological alterations are not detectable in the majority of people with whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Widespread hyperalgisa, morphological muscle changes and psychological distress are common features of WAD. However little is known about the presence of inflammation and its association with symptom persistence or the clinical presentation of WAD. This study aimed to prospectively investigate changes in serum inflammatory biomarker levels from the acute (<3 weeks) to chronic (>3 months) stages of whiplash injury. It also aimed to determine relationships between biomarker levels and hyperalgesia, fatty muscle infiltrates of the cervical extensors identified on MRI and psychological factors. 40 volunteers with acute WAD and 18 healthy controls participated. Participants with WAD were classified at 3 months as recovered/mild disability or having moderate/ severe disability using the Neck Disability Index. At baseline both WAD groups showed elevated serum levels of CRP but by 3 months levels remained elevated only in the moderate/severe group. The recovered/mild disability WAD group had higher levels of TNF-a at both time points than both the moderate/severe WAD group and healthy controls. There were no differences found in serum IL-1߮ Moderate relationships were found between hyperalgesia and CRP at both time points and between hyperalgesia and IL-1ߠ3 months post injury. There was a moderate negative correlation between TNF-a and amount of fatty muscle infiltrate and pain intensity at 3 months. Only a weak relationship was found between CRP and pain catastrophising and no relationship between biomarker levels and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The results of the study indicate that inflammatory biomarkers may play a role in outcomes following whiplash injury as well as being associated with hyperalgesia and fatty muscle infiltrate in the cervical extensors.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.description.publicationstatusYes
dc.format.extent156252 bytes
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science
dc.publisher.placeUnited States
dc.relation.ispartofstudentpublicationN
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrome77903-1
dc.relation.ispartofpagetoe77903-8
dc.relation.ispartofissue10
dc.relation.ispartofjournalPL o S One
dc.relation.ispartofvolume8
dc.rights.retentionY
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPhysiotherapy
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode110317
dc.titleThe Course of Serum Inflammatory Biomarkers Following Whiplash Injury and Their Relationship to Sensory and Muscle Measures: a Longitudinal Cohort Study
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
dcterms.licensehttp://www.plos.org/journals/license.html
gro.rights.copyright© 2013 Sterling et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CCAL. (http://www.plos.org/journals/license.html)
gro.date.issued2013
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorSterling, Michele


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