Characteristic features of trabecular bone in edentulous mandibles
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Background: The density and architecture of the alveolar trabecular bone are crucial to the stability of an endosseous implant. A significantly higher implant failure rate can be expected when implants are placed in alveolar bone with reduced density and stability. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the trabecular bone structure of edentulous mandibles. Method: Two hundred and seventy-eight bone sections, including the lateral incisor, first premolar, and first molar regions, were obtained from 128 edentulous lower jaws (68 females and 60 males; mean age: 77.58 years). Ground sections were prepared for each region using the 'sawing and grinding' technique. The following standard structural histomorphometric parameters were determined using a semiautomatic image analysis: trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, and the trabecular bone pattern factor, which describes the connectedness of cancellous bone structures. Also, the maximum height of the jaw section was determined, to detect any possible correlations between vertical height and histomorphometric parameters. Results: All the histomorphometric parameters examined showed an unexpectedly huge range of variation. The mean trabecular bone volume ranged between 20.9% and 36.9%. The mean trabecular thickness showed values between 165.9 and 224.7 孮 The mean trabecular number ranged between 1.22 and 1.77/ mm, and the mean trabecular separation ranged between 436.7 and 720.0 孮 The mean trabecular bone pattern factor showed values between -0.05 and -3.01/ mm. The maximum height of the jaw sections showed values between 16.05 and 23.42 mm. The trabecular bone volume, thickness, number and connectivity were significantly lower in the molar region than in the incisal and premolar regions. Significant sex-specific differences were found in all the regions, female mandibles showing a smaller amount and lower connectivity of cancellous bone than male mandibles. No correlation could be found between the maximum height of the jaw and the histomorphometric parameters of the cancellous bone. Conclusion: A possible explanation for the difference in the density between the incisal and the molar region may be that molars are generally lost at an earlier age than anterior and premolar teeth. As a result, atrophy-related resorptive and remodeling processes commence earlier and progress further in this region than in the anterior and premolar regions. Sex-specific differences are probably due to an increased postmenopausal bone loss of the females.
Clinical Oral Implants Research
Dentistry not elsewhere classified
Biomedical Engineering not elsewhere classified