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dc.contributor.authorIndriati, Etty
dc.contributor.authorSwisher, Carl C
dc.contributor.authorLepre, Christopher
dc.contributor.authorQuinn, Rhonda L
dc.contributor.authorSuriyanto, Rusyad A
dc.contributor.authorHascaryo, Agus T
dc.contributor.authorGruen, Rainer
dc.contributor.authorFeibel, Craig S
dc.contributor.authorPobiner, Briana L
dc.contributor.authorAubert, Maxime
dc.contributor.authorLees, Wendy
dc.contributor.authorAnton, Susan C
dc.date.accessioned2018-01-12T00:35:18Z
dc.date.available2018-01-12T00:35:18Z
dc.date.issued2011
dc.date.modified2014-07-21T05:09:06Z
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0021562
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/61401
dc.description.abstractHomo erectus was the first human lineage to disperse widely throughout the Old World, the only hominin in Asia through much of the Pleistocene, and was likely ancestral to H. sapiens. The demise of this taxon remains obscure because of uncertainties regarding the geological age of its youngest populations. In 1996, some of us co-published electron spin resonance (ESR) and uranium series (U-series) results indicating an age as young as 35–50 ka for the late H. erectus sites of Ngandong and Sambungmacan and the faunal site of Jigar (Indonesia). If correct, these ages favor an African origin for recent humans who would overlap with H. erectus in time and space. Here, we report 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analyses and new ESR/U-series age estimates from the ‘‘20 m terrace’’ at Ngandong and Jigar. Both data sets are internally consistent and provide no evidence for reworking, yet they are inconsistent with one another. The 40Ar/39Ar analyses give an average age of 546612 ka (sd65 se) for both sites, the first reliable radiometric indications of a middle Pleistocene component for the terrace. Given the technical accuracy and consistency of the analyses, the argon ages represent either the actual age or the maximum age for the terrace and are significantly older than previous estimates. Most of the ESR/U-series results are older as well, but the oldest that meets all modeling criteria is 143 ka+20/217. Most samples indicated leaching of uranium and likely represent either the actual or the minimum age of the terrace. Given known sources of error, the U-series results could be consistent with a middle Pleistocene age. However, the ESR and 40Ar/39Ar ages preclude one another. Regardless, the age of the sites and hominins is at least bracketed between these estimates and is older than currently accepted.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.description.publicationstatusYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science
dc.publisher.placeUnited States
dc.relation.ispartofstudentpublicationN
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrome21562-1
dc.relation.ispartofpagetoe21562-10
dc.relation.ispartofissue6
dc.relation.ispartofjournalPloS One
dc.relation.ispartofvolume6
dc.rights.retentionY
dc.subject.fieldofresearchArchaeological Science
dc.subject.fieldofresearchArchaeology of Asia, Africa and the Americas
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode210102
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode210103
dc.titleThe Age of the 20 Meter Solo River Terrace, Java, Indonesia and the Survival of Homo erectus in Asia
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
dcterms.licensehttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.description.versionVersion of Record (VoR)
gro.rights.copyright© 2011 Indriati et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
gro.hasfulltextFull Text
gro.griffith.authorAubert, Maxime
gro.griffith.authorGrun, Rainer


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