Oxidative stress in Campylobacter jejuni: responses, resistance and regulation
Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne human pathogen that paradoxically is an oxygen-sensitive microaerophile, yet must resist the oxidative stresses encountered both in the host and in the environment. Recent studies suggest that, perhaps surprisingly, C. jejuni contains a wide range of enzymes involved in oxidative stress defense, and this review focuses on the properties and roles of these proteins. Although the mechanisms of gene regulation are still poorly understood in C. jejuni, several regulators of the oxidative stress response have been identified and their properties are discussed here. We suggest that future studies should be directed towards identifying the role of additional and less well characterized components involved in oxidative stress resistance, as well as providing a more complete picture of the underlying sensing and regulatory mechanisms.