Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) composite biomaterials for bone tissue regeneration: In vitro performance assessed by osteoblast proliferation, osteoclast adhesion and resorption, and macrophage proinflammatory response
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The efficacy of composite materials for bone tissue engineering is dependent on the materials' ability to support bone regeneration whilst inducing a minimal inflammatory response. In this study we examined the in vitro osteogenic and inflammatory properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-valerate) (PHBV) with various calcium phosphate-reinforcing phases: nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA); submicron-sized calcined hydroxyapatite (cHA); and submicron-sized β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), using bioassays of cultured osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and macrophages. Our study showed that the addition of a nano-sized reinforcing phase to PHBV, whilst improving osteogenic properties, also reduces the proinflammatory response. Proinflammatory responses of RAW264.7/ELAM-eGFP macrophages to PHBV were shown to be markedly reduced by the introduction of a reinforcing phase, with HA/PHBV composites having the lowest inflammatory response. Osteoclasts, whilst able to attach to all the materials, failed to form functional actin rings or resorption pits on any of the materials under investigation. Cultures of osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) readily attached and mineralised on all the materials, with HA/PHBV inducing the highest levels of mineralization. The improved biological performance of HA/PHBV composites when compared with cHA/PHBV and β-TCP/PHBV composites is most likely a result of the nano-sized reinforcing phase of HA/PHBV and the greater surface presentation of mineral in these composites. Our results provide a new strategy for improving the suitability of PHBV-based materials for bone tissue regeneration.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part A
Medical and Health Sciences